Vikings, Scandinavian’s from the West were the first to cross the ice bridge (Beringia) during the last ice age, as it was receding. Asians from the East came during the same time, but they hadn’t met until generations later, they are now who we now call the “First Americans,” “Native American’s” or “Indians.” This report is no surprise it only validates our theories.
I found your assertion that Scandinavians were the first to cross the land bridge during the last Ice Age puzzling as the peopling of the Americas has been a focused interest of mine for at least the last three decades. (Beringia is a submerged land mass, not the temporary ice bridges that have formed in more recent times.) Jacques Cinque-Mars, after excavating Bluefish Cave since 1977 was only vindicated in 2017 in his discovery of a 24,000 YBP human presence in North America. There are several older sites up to the 250,000 YBP sites in the Valsequillo Valley of Mexico, 130,000 YBP San Diego, California, 40,000 YBP Channel Islands and over a dozen less substantiated sites on the Pacific edge suggesting a much earlier entry from Beringia. None that I am aware of show the faintest suggestion of North European origins but rather Asian with traces of admixture of Polynesian and North African. I speculated that you may have confused the term “caucasoid” James Chatters applied to Kennewick Man, a characteristic of coastal Asian and Polynesian ancestors, with Caucasian, characteristic of European ancestors. Chatters later found several other skeletons of similar age with the same characteristics. DNA analysis in Denmark in 2015 affirmed Kennewick Man’s affinity and continuity with other native groups as well as the presence of two genetic markers virtually exclusive to native populations of the Americas.
Rasmussen, Morten; Sikora, Martin; Albrechtsen, Anders; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Poznik, G. David; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Allentoft, Morten E.; Moltke, Ida; Jónsson, Hákon; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malhi, Ripan S.; Orlando, Ludovic; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Stafford Jr, Thomas W.; Meltzer, David J.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske (June 18, 2015). “The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man”. Nature . 523 (7561): 455–8. doi:10.1038/nature14625. PMC 4878456. PMID 26087396
Aside from that, Kennewick Man, in terms of an earliest Beringia crossing at ±7,770 BCE is far too recent. Anzick-1, a 12,707 YBP burial from Montana, the first native genome to be fully sequenced shows very close genetic relationship to contemporary American natives in North, Central and South America.
Supporting the Anzick-1 data is the Upward Sun River Site, where the oldest burials on the American side of Beringia were discovered in 2006 and the complete mitochondrial genome from two infant burials was extracted in 2015. Nuclear DNA from the petrous bone of both was sequenced in 2018. A brief synopsis of the importance and relevance to this topic:
Ancient Beringians(AB) is a specific archaeogenetic lineage, based on the genome of an infant found at the Upward Sun River site (dubbed USR1), dated to 11,500 years ago. The AB lineage diverged from the Ancestral Native American (ANA) lineage about 20,000 years ago. The ANA lineage was estimated as having been formed between 20,000 and 25,000 years ago by a mixture of Proto-Mongoloid and Ancient North Eurasian lineages, consistent with the model of the via Beringia peopling of the Americas during the Last Glacial Maximum. The Ancient Beringian lineage is extinct, and is not found as a contribution to modern indigenous lineages in Alaska. The 2018 study suggests that the AB lineage was replaced by or absorbed in a back-migration of NNA to Alaska.
With all that stated to forestall any misunderstanding, I would be very interested in reading further the information upon which you based your statement about a Scandinavian Beringian entry during the LGM. Also I wasn’t able to find the Atlas Obscura article that prompted your comment; could you link to that as well? Thanks.
I think Tex Arcana has already given a succinct and informative reply to your post and pointed out why some of the ideas you are suggesting do not really fit the evidence from the historical/archeological record.
The Viking settlers came to North America several tens of millennia after the ice age, literally eons later, during the Dark ages. A book I highly recommend you to read is the “Vinland saga” which is relatively short compared to most of the sagas and written in the words of these intrepid vikings. It is also worth mentioning that they may not have used the word “vikings” to describe themselves either as they were exiles and outsiders. Moreover it is doubtful whether they even had a concept of their being either “Scandinavians” or “Europeans” themselves as these are modern constructs that would have been totally unfamiliar in the dark ages.
They did however have a concept of the indigenous Inuit (or as they were known in Norse “Skraeling”) inhabitants as being “the other” and you do get a sense that they perceived the native American peoples they encountered as being almost akin to supernatural entities. Nevertheless and despite outbreaks of violence this never seemed to develop into an overt racial differentiation of coloniser and colonized in the settler’s mindset. This probably was due to the Norse failure at long term settlement and eventual abandonment of North America and the fact that this unfortunate and very ugly dichotomy was a much later development /characteristic of European empire building.
The history of how settlers like Eriksson came to the New world long before the Spaniards and Portuguese, their impressions of the land, and struggles to adapt to it not to mention the positive and negative encounters with the indigenous peoples is utterly fascinating.
Indeed the experience of reading the Vinland saga is actually so much more interesting and compelling to read than any of the erroneous notions that the Americas were first settled by people other than the original Amerindian groups who crossed the Bering strait during the ice age and settled landmasses from the Arctic down to Tierra del fuego.
Please do check out that book and also some of the other sagas too , I just know that you will find them to be interesting and informative reads.