Those are definitely ship tracks in the region around Cocos Island to Costa Rica.
Here is an article describing what is going on geologically. In the article, the subheading “Observations” gives an overview of the plate tectonics in that region. Note in Figure 1 that Cocos Island is labeled as ISCO (Isla del Coco).
In the Google Earth imagery you posted, you’ll notice that within the ship tracks you see more detail on topography. For example, if you go northeast from the word “Island” you’ll see bumps that are undersea volcanoes. Bumps that are outside the ship tracks are smooth because we don’t know what they look like in detail.
Interestingly, the vast majority of the sea floor is unexplored. Research ships tend to stick around tectonically interesting (e.g. volcanos, tectonic plate boundaries) locales. If you want to know where the most active plate tectonics are in the Google imagery, just look for ship tracks. To get a broader view of the Google imagery, zoom out so you can see the whole Pacific. All those straight lines are ship tracks.
Let me know if you want some good intro information on plate tectonics as I don’t know how familiar you are with the topic.
A better source for looking at the sea floor features is to look at satellite data that measures the height of the sea surface. Due to gravity, water above a sea floor volcano will bulge up higher, and over the valleys the sea surface is relatively lower. Our ocean is not flat like bathtub water.
Check out this website. Here, you can see the above mentioned sea surface satellite data. It is not as detailed or as high in resolution as the ship tracks on Google Earth, but it gives you a view of features on the sea floor. In this imagery, the straight lines are mid ocean ridges and transform faults. You won’t see ship tracks in this imagery, since it was created from satellite measurements. (To learn more about how the imagery was created you can google “marine gravity” or “satellite gravity”. there is also a link in the website with more info.
UPDATE: for clarification: you CAN see where the ship tracks are in the satellite gravity imagery. They are overprinted on the satellite data, but not part of that data. As with Google Earth imagery, the more detailed lines show the shiptracks. You will need to zoom it to the max to find where the ship tracks are.
UPDATE #2: here’s a website with a video explanation of sea floor topography and satellite/marine gravity. This is really cool!!!